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Wednesday, 17 August 2011

4th SEMESTER


10177PR401 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM PROCESSES
(Common to ECE & Bio Medical Engineering)

AIM
This course aims at providing the necessary basic concepts in random processes. Knowledge
of fundamentals and applications of random phenomena will greatly help in the understanding
of topics such as signals & systems, pattern recognition, voice and image processing and
filtering theory

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the course, the students would
Have a fundamental knowledge of the basic probability concepts.
Have a well-founded knowledge of standard distributions which can describe real life
phenomena.
Acquire skills in handling situations involving more than one random variable and functions of random variables.
Understand and characterize phenomena which evolve with respect to time  in probabilistic manner.
Be able to analyze the response of random inputs to linear time invariant systems.

UNIT I RANDOM VARIABLES
Discrete and continuous random variables – Moments - Moment generating functions and
their properties. Binomial, Poisson ,Geometric, Uniform, Exponential, Gamma and normal distributions – Function of Random Variable.

UNIT 2 TWO DIMENSIONAL RANDOM VARIBLES
Joint distributions - Marginal and conditional distributions – Covariance - Correlation and Regression - Transformation of random variables - Central limit theorem (for 2D random variables)

UNIT 3 CLASSIFICATION OF RANDOM PROCESSES
Definition and examples - first order, second order, strictly stationary, wide-sense stationary and ergodic processes - Markov process - Binomial, Poisson and Normal processes – Sine wave process – Random telegraph process.

UNIT 4 CORRELATION AND SPECTRAL DENSITIES
Auto correlation - Cross correlation - Properties – Power spectral density – Cross spectral
density - Properties – Wiener-Khintchine relation – Relationship between cross power
spectrum and cross correlation function

UNIT 5 LINEAR SYSTEMS WITH RANDOM INPUTS
Linear time invariant system - System transfer function – Linear systems with random inputs– Auto correlation and cross correlation functions of input and output – white noise.
TEXT BOOKS
1. T. Veerarajan, “Probability, Statistics and Random Processes”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd
Edition
2.Oliver C. Ibe, “Fundamentals of Applied probability and Random processes”, Elsevier, First
Indian Reprint ( 2007) (For units 1 and 2)
3.Peebles Jr. P.Z., “Probability Random Variables and Random Signal Principles”,Tata
McGraw-Hill Publishers, Fourth Edition, New Delhi, 2002. (For units 3, 4 and 5).

REFERENCES
1. Miller,S.L and Childers, S.L, “Probability and Random Processes with applications to
Signal Processing and Communications”, Elsevier Inc., First Indian Reprint 2007.
2. Athanasios Papoulis & S. Unnikrishna Pillai, “Probability, Random variables and
Stochastic Processes”, fourth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill
3. H. Stark and J.W. Woods, “Probability and Random Processes with Applications to Signal Processing”, Pearson Education (Asia), Third Edition, 2002.
4.Hwei Hsu, “Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Probability, Random Variables and Random Processes”, Tata McGraw-Hill edition, New Delhi, 2004.
5.Leon-Garcia,A, “Probability and Random Processes for Electrical Engineering”, Pearson Education Asia, Second Edition, 2007.

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10144EC402 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS II

AIM
The aim of this course is to familiarize the student with the analysis and design of feed back
amplifiers, oscillators, tuned amplifiers, wave shaping circuits, multivibrators and blocking
oscillators.

OBJECTIVES
To understand
The advantages and method of analysis of feedback amplifiers
Analysis and design of LC and RC oscillators, tuned amplifiers, wave shaping circuits,
multivibrators, blocking oscillators and time base generators.

UNIT 1 FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS
Block diagram, Loop gain, Gain with feedback, Effects of negative feedback – Sensitivity and
desensitivity of gain, Cut-off frequencies, distortion, noise, input impedance and output
impedance with feedback, Four types of negative feedback connections – voltage series
feedback, voltage shunt feedback, current series feedback and current shunt feedback, Method
of identifying feedback topology and feedback factor, Nyquist criterion for stability of
feedback amplifiers.

UNIT 2 OSCILLATORS
Classification, Barkhausen Criterion - Mechanism for start of oscillation and stabilization of
amplitude, General form of an Oscillator, Analysis of LC oscillators - Hartley, Colpitts,
Clapp, Franklin, Armstrong, Tuned collector oscillators, RC oscillators - phase shift –
Wienbridge - Twin-T Oscillators, Frequency range of RC and LC Oscillators, Quartz Crystal
Construction, Electrical equivalent circuit of Crystal, Miller and Pierce Crystal oscillators,
frequency stability of oscillators.

UNIT 3 TUNED AMPLIFIERS
Coil losses, unloaded and loaded Q of tank circuits, small signal tuned amplifiers - Analysis of
capacitor coupled single tuned amplifier – double tuned amplifier - effect of cascading single
tuned and double tuned amplifiers on bandwidth – Stagger tuned amplifiers – large signal
tuned amplifiers – Class C tuned amplifier – Efficiency and applications of Class C tuned
amplifier - Stability of tuned amplifiers – Neutralization - Hazeltine neutralization method.

UNIT 4 WAVE SHAPING AND MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUITS
RC & RL Integrator and Differentiator circuits – Storage, Delay and Calculation of Transistor
Switching Times – Speed-up Capacitor - Diode clippers, Diode comparator - Clampers.
Collector coupled and Emitter coupled Astable multivibrator - Monostable multivibrator -
Bistable multivibrators - Triggering methods for Bistable multivibrators - Schmitt trigger
circuit.

UNIT 5 BLOCKING OSCILLATORS AND TIMEBASE GENERATORS
UJT sawtooth waveform generator, Pulse transformers – equivalent circuit – response
applications, Blocking Oscillator – Free running blocking oscillator -Astable Blocking
Oscillators with base timing – Push-pull Astable blocking oscillator with emitter timing,
Frequency control using core saturation, Triggered blocking oscillator – Monostable blocking
oscillator with base timing – Monostable blocking oscillator with emitter timing, Time base
circuits -Voltage-Time base circuit, Current-Time base circuit -Linearization through
adjustment of driving waveform.

TEXT BOOKS
1. Millman and Halkias. C.,” Integrated Electronics”, TMH, 1991.
2. S. Salivahanan, N. Suresh Kumar and A. Vallavaraj, “Electronic Devices and Circuits”,
Second Edition, TMH, 2007.

REFERENCES
1. Millman J. and Taub H., “Pulse Digital and Switching Waveforms”, TMH, 2000.
2. Schilling and Belove, “ Electronic Circuits “, Third Edition, TMH, 2002.
3. Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nasheresky, “ Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory”,
nineth Edition, PHI, 2002.
4. David A. Bell,” Solid State Pulse Circuits”, Prentice Hall of India, 1992.
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10144EC403 COMMUNICATION THEORY

AIM
To study the various analog communication fundamentals viz., Amplitude modulation and
demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation. Noise performance of various receivers
and information theory with source coding theorem are also dealt.

OBJECTIVE
To provide various Amplitude modulation and demodulation systems.
To provide various Angle modulation and demodulation systems.
To provide some depth analysis in noise performance of various receiver.
To study some basic information theory with some channel coding theorem.

UNIT1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEMS
Review of Spectral Characteristics of Periodic and Non-periodic signals; Generation and
Demodulation of AM, DSBSC, SSB and VSB Signals; Comparison of Amplitude Modulation
Systems; Frequency Translation; FDM; Non – Linear Distortion-. Superheterodyne Radio
receiver and its characteristic; SNR

UNIT 2. ANGLE MODULATION SYSTEMS
Phase and Frequency Modulation; Single tone, Narrow Band and Wideband FM;
Transmission Bandwidth; Generation and Demodulation of FM Signal.

UNIT 3. NOISE THEORY
Gaussian Process; Noise – Shot noise, Thermal noise and white noise; Narrow band noise,
Noise temperature; Noise Figure.

UNIT4. PERFORMANCE OF CW MODULATION SYSTEMS
Noise in DSBSC systems using coherent detection; Noise in AM system using envelope
detection and its FM system; FM threshold effect; Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis in FM;
Comparison of performances.

UNIT5. INFORMATION THEORY
Discrete Messages and Information Content, Concept of Amount of Information, Average
information, Entropy, Information rate, Source coding to increase average information per bit,
Shannon-Fano coding, Huffman coding, Lempel-Ziv (LZ) coding, Shannon’s Theorem,
Channel Capacity, Bandwidth- S/N trade-off, Mutual information and channel capacity, rate
distortion theory, Lossy Source coding.

TEXT BOOKS
1.Simon Haykin, “ Communication Systems”, John Wiley and sons, NY, 4th Edition, 2001.
2. Dennis Roddy & John Coolen – “Electronic Communication (IV Ed.)”, Prentice Hall of
India.

REFERENCE:
1. Herbert Taub & Donald L Schilling –“ Principles of Communication Systems” Third
Edition – Tata McGraw Hill, 2008.
2. Bruce Carlson – “Communication Systems”. (Third Edition.), Mc Graw Hill.
3. B.P.Lathi, “ Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems”, Third Edition, Oxfod
Press,2007.
4. R.P Singh and S.D.Sapre, “Communication Systems – Analog and Digital”, Tata McGraw
Hill, second Edition, 2007.

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10144EC404 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

AIM
To familiarize the student to the concepts, calculations and pertaining to electric, magnetic and
electromagnetic fields so that an in depth understanding of antennas, electronic devices,
Waveguides is possible.

OBJECTIVES
To analyze fields and potentials due to static changes
To evaluate static magnetic fields
To understand how materials affect electric and magnetic fields
To understand the relation between the fields under time varying situations
To understand principles of propagation of uniform plane waves.

UNIT I STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
Introduction to Co-ordinate System – Rectangular – Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate
System – Introduction to line, Surface and Volume Integrals – Definition of Curl, Divergence
and Gradient – Meaning of Stokes theorem and Divergence theorem Coulomb’s Law in
Vector Form – Definition of Electric Field Intensity – Principle of Superposition – Electric
Field due to discrete charges – Electric field due to continuous charge distribution - Electric
Field due to charges distributed uniformly on an infinite and finite line – Electric Field on the
axis of a uniformly charged circular disc – Electric Field due to an infinite uniformly charged
sheet. Electric Scalar Potential – Relationship between potential and electric field - Potential
due to infinite uniformly charged line – Potential due to electrical dipole - Electric Flux
Density – Gauss Law – Proof of Gauss Law – Applications.

UNIT 2 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD
The Biot-Savart Law in vector form – Magnetic Field intensity due to a finite and infinite wire
carrying a current I – Magnetic field intensity on the axis of a circular and rectangular loop
carrying a current I – Ampere’s circuital law and simple applications. Magnetic flux density –
The Lorentz force equation for a moving charge and applications – Force on a wire carrying a
current I placed in a magnetic field – Torque on a loop carrying a current I – Magnetic
moment – Magnetic Vector Potential.

UNIT 3 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN MATERIALS
Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation – Electric Polarization-Nature of dielectric materials-
Definition of Capacitance – Capacitance of various geometries using Laplace’s equation –
Electrostatic energy and energy density – Boundary conditions for electric fields – Electric
current – Current density – point form of ohm’s law – continuity equation for current.
Definition of Inductance – Inductance of loops and solenoids – Definition of mutual
inductance – simple examples. Energy density in magnetic fields – Nature of magnetic
materials – magnetization and permeability - magnetic boundary conditions.

UNIT 4 TIME VARYING ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Faraday’s law – Maxwell’s Second Equation in integral form from Faraday’s Law – Equation
expressed in point form. Displacement current – Ampere’s circuital law in integral form –
Modified form of Ampere’s circuital law as Maxwell’s first equation in integral form –
Equation expressed in point form. Maxwell’s four equations in integral form and differential
form. Poynting Vector and the flow of power – Power flow in a co-axial cable – Instantaneous
Average and Complex Poynting Vector.

UNIT 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Derivation of Wave Equation – Uniform Plane Waves – Maxwell’s equation in Phasor form –
Wave equation in Phasor form – Plane waves in free space and in a homogenous material.
Wave equation for a conducting medium – Plane waves in lossy dielectrics – Propagation in
good conductors – Skin effect. Linear, Elliptical and circular polarization – Reflection of
Plane Wave from a conductor – normal incidence – Reflection of Plane Waves by a perfect
dielectric – normal and oblique incidence. Dependence on Polarization. Brewster angle.

TEXTBOOKS
1.W H.Hayt & J A Buck “Engineering Electromagnetics” TATA McGraw-Hill, seventh
Edition 2007 (Unit I,II,III ).
2.E.C.Jordan & K.G. Balmain, “Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems.” PHI 2006.
(Unit IV, V).

REFERENCES
1.Matthew N.O.Sadiku: “Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics” Oxford University
Press, fourth edition, 2007
2.Narayana Rao, N “Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics” sixth edition, Pearson
Education, New Delhi, 2006.
3.David K.Cheng: “Field and Wave Electromagnetics” Second Edition-Pearson Edition, 2004.
4.G.S.N. Raju, “ Electromagnetic Field Theory & Transmission Lines”, Pearson Education,
2006



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10144EC405 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

AIM:
To teach the basic concepts in the design of electronic circuits using linear integrated circuits
and their applications in the processing of analog signals.

OBJECTIVES
To introduce the basic building blocks of linear integrated circuits.
To teach the linear and non-linear applications of operational amplifiers.
To introduce the theory and applications of analog multipliers and PLL.
To teach the theory of ADC and DAC
To introduce the concepts of waveform generation and introduce some special function ICs.

UNIT - I IC FABRICATION AND CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR LINEAR ICS
Advantages of Ics over discrete components – Manufacturing process of monolithic Ics –
Construction of monolithic bipolar transistor – Monolithic diodes – Integrated Resistors –
Monolithic Capacitors – Inductors. Current mirror and current sources, Current sources as
active loads, Voltage sources, Voltage References, BJT Differential amplifier with active
loads, General operational amplifier stages -and internal circuit diagrams of IC 741, DC and
AC performance characteristics, slew rate, Open and closed loop configurations.

UNIT - 2 APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
Sign Changer, Scale Changer, Phase Shift Circuits, Voltage Follower, V-to-I and I-to-V
converters, adder, subtractor, Instrumentation amplifier, Integrator, Differentiator,
Logarithmic amplifier, Antilogarithmic amplifier, Comparators, Schmitt trigger, Precision
rectifier, peak detector, clipper and clamper, Low-pass, high-pass and band-pass Butterworth
filters.

UNIT - 3 ANALOG MULTIPLIER AND PLL
Analog Multiplier using Emitter Coupled Transistor Pair - Gilbert Multiplier cell - Variable
transconductance technique, analog multiplier ICs and their applications, Operation of the
basic PLL, Closed loop analysis, Voltage controlled oscillator, Monolithic PLL IC 565,
application of PLL for AM detection, FM detection, FSK modulation and demodulation and
Frequency synthesizing.

UNIT - 4 ANALOG TO DIGITAL AND DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTERS

Analog and Digital Data Conversions, D/A converter – specifications - weighted resistor type,
R-2R Ladder type, Voltage Mode and Current-Mode R . 2R Ladder types - switches for D/A
converters, high speed sample-and-hold circuits, A/D Converters – specifications - Flash type
- Successive Approximation type - Single Slope type - Dual Slope type - A/D Converter using
Voltage-to-Time Conversion - Over-sampling A/D Converters.

UNIT - 5 WAVEFORM GENERATORS AND SPECIAL FUNCTION ICs
Sine-wave generators, Multi vibrators and Triangular wave generator, Saw-tooth wave
generator, ICL8038 function generator, Timer IC 555, IC Voltage regulators -Three terminal
fixed and adjustable voltage regulators -IC 723 general purpose regulator monolithic
switching regulator, Switched capacitor filter IC MF10, Frequency to Voltage and Voltage to
Frequency converters, Audio Power amplifier, Video Amplifier, Isolation Amplifier, Optocouplers
and fibre optic IC.

TEXT BOOKS:
1.D.Roy Choudhry, Shail Jain,”Linear Integrated Circuits”,New Age International Pvt. Ltd.,
2000.

REFERENCES:
1.B.S.Sonde, “ System design using Integrated Circuits”, New Age Pub, 2nd Edition, 2001
2.Gray and Meyer, “ Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits”, Wiley International,
2005.
3.Ramakant A.Gayakwad,”OP-AMP and Linear ICs” , Prentice Hall / Pearson Education,
fourth Edition, 2001.
4.William D.Stanley,”Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits”, Pearson
Education, 2004.
5.K Lal Kishore, “Operational Amplifier and Linear Integrated Circuits”, Pearson Education,
2006
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10144EC406 CONTROL SYSTEMS

AIM
To familiarize the students with concepts related to the operation analysis and stabilization of
control systems

OBJECTIVES
To understand the open loop and closed loop (feedback ) systems
To understand time domain and frequency domain analysis of control systems
required for stability analysis.
To understand the compensation technique that can be used to stabilize control systems

UNIT 1. CONTROL SYSTEM MODELING
Basic Elements of Control System – Open loop and Closed loop systems - Differential
equation - Transfer function, Modeling of Electric systems, Translational and rotational
mechanical systems - Block diagram reduction Techniques - Signal flow graph

UNIT 2 RESPONSE ANALYSIS              
Time response analysis - First Order Systems - Impulse and Step Response analysis of second
order systems - Steady state errors – P, PI, PD and PID Compensation, Analysis using
MATLAB

UNIT 3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS
Frequency Response - Bode Plot, Polar Plot, Nyquist Plot - Frequency Domain specifications
from the plots - Constant M and N Circles - Nichol’s Chart - Use of Nichol’s Chart in Control
System Analysis. Series, Parallel, series-parallel Compensators - Lead, Lag, and Lead Lag
Compensators, Analysis using MATLAB.

UNIT 4. STABILITY ANALYSIS
Stability, Routh-Hurwitz Criterion, Root Locus Technique, Construction of Root Locus,
Stability, Dominant Poles, Application of Root Locus Diagram - Nyquist Stability Criterion -
Relative Stability, Analysis using MATLAB

UNIT 5. STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS & DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
State space representation of Continuous Time systems – State equations – Transfer function
from State Variable Representation – Solutions of the state equations - Concepts of
Controllability and Observability – State space representation for Discrete time systems.
Sampled Data control systems – Sampling Theorem – Sample & Hold – Open loop & Closed
loop sampled data systems.

TEXTBOOK:
1.J.Nagrath and M.Gopal,” Control System Engineering”, New Age International Publishers,
5th Edition, 2007.
2. A.Anand Kumar ,”Control systems “, PHI Learning Private Limited ,2010

REFERENCES:
1.Benjamin.C.Kuo, “Automatic control systems”, Prentice Hall of India, Edition,1995.
2.M.Gopal, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Second Edition, TMH, 2007.
3.Schaum’s Outline Series,’ Feedback and Control Systems’ Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.
5.Richard C. Dorf & Robert H. Bishop, “ Modern Control Systems”, Addison – Wesley, 1999.

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10144EC407 ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS II AND SIMULATION LAB

Design of following circuits
1. Series and Shunt feedback amplifiers: Frequency response, Input and output impedance
calculation
2. RC Phase shift oscillator, Wien Bridge Oscillator
3. Hartley Oscillator, Colpitts Oscillator
4. Tuned Class C Amplifier
5. Integrators, Differentiators, Clippers and Clampers
6. Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators
SIMULATION USING PSPICE:
1. Differential amplifier
2. Active filters : Butterworth 2nd order LPF, HPF (Magnitude & Phase Response)
3. Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrator -Transistor bias
4. D/A and A/D converters (Successive approximation)
5. Analog multiplier
6. CMOS Inverter, NAND and NOR

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10144EC408 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
Design and testing of
1. Inverting, Non inverting and Differential amplifiers.
2. Integrator and Differentiator.
3. Instrumentation amplifier
4. Active lowpass, Highpass and bandpass filters.
5. Astable & Monostable multivibrators and Schmitt Trigger using op-amp.
6. Phase shift and Wien bridge oscillators using op-amp.
7. Astable and monostable multivibrators using NE555 Timer.
8. PLL characteristics and its use as Frequency Multiplier.
9. DC power supply using LM317 and LM723.
10. Study of SMPS.
11. Simulation of Experiments 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 using PSpice netlists.
Note: Op-Amps uA741, LM 301, LM311, LM 324 & AD 633 may be used
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10144EC409 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND CONTROL SYSTEM LAB

AIM
1. To expose the students to the basic operation of electrical machines and help them to
develop experimental skills.
2. To study the concepts, performance characteristics, time and frequency
response of linear systems.
3. To study the effects of controllers.
1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited D.C. generator.
2. Load test on D.C. shunt motor.
3. Swinburne’s test and speed control of D.C. shunt motor.
4. Load test on single phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit test on single phase
transformer
5. Regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods.
6. Load test on three phase induction motor.
7. No load and blocked rotor tests on three phase induction motor (Determination of
equivalent circuit parameters)
8. Study of D.C. motor and induction motor starters.
9. Digital simulation of linear systems.
10. Stability Analysis of Linear system using Mat lab.
11. Study the effect of P, PI, PID controllers using Mat lab.
12. Design of Lead and Lag compensator.
13. Transfer Function of separately excited D.C.Generator.
14. Transfer Function of armature and Field Controller D.C.Motor.
EXPERIMENTS:
1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited D.C.
generator.
2. Load test on D.C. shunt motor.
3. Swinburne’s test and speed control of D.C. shunt motor
4. Load test on single-phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit
test on single-phase transformer.
5. Regulation of three-phase alternator by EMF and MMF method.
6. Load test on three phase Induction motor.
7. No load and blocked rotor test on three-phase induction motor
(Determination of equivalent circuit parameters)
8. Study of D.C. motor and Induction motor starters.
9. Digital simulation of linear systems.
10. Stability analysis of linear system using Mat lab or equivalent open source tools
11. Study of effect of P, PI, PID controllers using Mat lab. or equivalent open source
tools
12. Design of lead and lag compensator.
13. Transfer function of separately excited D.C. generator.
14. Transfer function of armature and field controller D.C. motor.

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