**10177PR401 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM PROCESSES**

(Common to ECE & Bio Medical Engineering)

**AIM**

This course aims at providing the necessary basic concepts in random processes. Knowledge

of fundamentals and applications of random phenomena will greatly help in the understanding

of topics such as signals & systems, pattern recognition, voice and image processing and

filtering theory

**OBJECTIVES**

At the end of the course, the students would

Have a fundamental knowledge of the basic probability concepts.

Have a well-founded knowledge of standard distributions which can describe real life

phenomena.

Acquire skills in handling situations involving more than one random variable and functions of random variables.

Understand and characterize phenomena which evolve with respect to time in probabilistic manner.

Be able to analyze the response of random inputs to linear time invariant systems.

**UNIT I RANDOM VARIABLES**

Discrete and continuous random variables – Moments - Moment generating functions and

their properties. Binomial, Poisson ,Geometric, Uniform, Exponential, Gamma and normal distributions – Function of Random Variable.

**UNIT 2 TWO DIMENSIONAL RANDOM VARIBLES**

Joint distributions - Marginal and conditional distributions – Covariance - Correlation and Regression - Transformation of random variables - Central limit theorem (for 2D random variables)

**UNIT 3 CLASSIFICATION OF RANDOM PROCESSES**

Definition and examples - first order, second order, strictly stationary, wide-sense stationary and ergodic processes - Markov process - Binomial, Poisson and Normal processes – Sine wave process – Random telegraph process.

**UNIT 4 CORRELATION AND SPECTRAL DENSITIES**

Auto correlation - Cross correlation - Properties – Power spectral density – Cross spectral

density - Properties – Wiener-Khintchine relation – Relationship between cross power

spectrum and cross correlation function

**UNIT 5 LINEAR SYSTEMS WITH RANDOM INPUTS**

Linear time invariant system - System transfer function – Linear systems with random inputs– Auto correlation and cross correlation functions of input and output – white noise.

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. T. Veerarajan, “Probability, Statistics and Random Processes”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd

Edition

2.Oliver C. Ibe, “Fundamentals of Applied probability and Random processes”, Elsevier, First

Indian Reprint ( 2007) (For units 1 and 2)

3.Peebles Jr. P.Z., “Probability Random Variables and Random Signal Principles”,Tata

McGraw-Hill Publishers, Fourth Edition, New Delhi, 2002. (For units 3, 4 and 5).

**REFERENCES**

1. Miller,S.L and Childers, S.L, “Probability and Random Processes with applications to

Signal Processing and Communications”, Elsevier Inc., First Indian Reprint 2007.

2. Athanasios Papoulis & S. Unnikrishna Pillai, “Probability, Random variables and

Stochastic Processes”, fourth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill

3. H. Stark and J.W. Woods, “Probability and Random Processes with Applications to Signal Processing”, Pearson Education (Asia), Third Edition, 2002.

4.Hwei Hsu, “Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Probability, Random Variables and Random Processes”, Tata McGraw-Hill edition, New Delhi, 2004.

5.Leon-Garcia,A, “Probability and Random Processes for Electrical Engineering”, Pearson Education Asia, Second Edition, 2007.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

**10144EC402 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS II**

**AIM**

The aim of this course is to familiarize the student with the analysis and design of feed back

amplifiers, oscillators, tuned amplifiers, wave shaping circuits, multivibrators and blocking

oscillators.

**OBJECTIVES**

To understand

The advantages and method of analysis of feedback amplifiers

Analysis and design of LC and RC oscillators, tuned amplifiers, wave shaping circuits,

multivibrators, blocking oscillators and time base generators.

**UNIT 1 FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS**

Block diagram, Loop gain, Gain with feedback, Effects of negative feedback – Sensitivity and

desensitivity of gain, Cut-off frequencies, distortion, noise, input impedance and output

impedance with feedback, Four types of negative feedback connections – voltage series

feedback, voltage shunt feedback, current series feedback and current shunt feedback, Method

of identifying feedback topology and feedback factor, Nyquist criterion for stability of

feedback amplifiers.

**UNIT 2 OSCILLATORS**

Classification, Barkhausen Criterion - Mechanism for start of oscillation and stabilization of

amplitude, General form of an Oscillator, Analysis of LC oscillators - Hartley, Colpitts,

Clapp, Franklin, Armstrong, Tuned collector oscillators, RC oscillators - phase shift –

Wienbridge - Twin-T Oscillators, Frequency range of RC and LC Oscillators, Quartz Crystal

Construction, Electrical equivalent circuit of Crystal, Miller and Pierce Crystal oscillators,

frequency stability of oscillators.

**UNIT 3 TUNED AMPLIFIERS**

Coil losses, unloaded and loaded Q of tank circuits, small signal tuned amplifiers - Analysis of

capacitor coupled single tuned amplifier – double tuned amplifier - effect of cascading single

tuned and double tuned amplifiers on bandwidth – Stagger tuned amplifiers – large signal

tuned amplifiers – Class C tuned amplifier – Efficiency and applications of Class C tuned

amplifier - Stability of tuned amplifiers – Neutralization - Hazeltine neutralization method.

**UNIT 4 WAVE SHAPING AND MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUITS**

RC & RL Integrator and Differentiator circuits – Storage, Delay and Calculation of Transistor

Switching Times – Speed-up Capacitor - Diode clippers, Diode comparator - Clampers.

Collector coupled and Emitter coupled Astable multivibrator - Monostable multivibrator -

Bistable multivibrators - Triggering methods for Bistable multivibrators - Schmitt trigger

circuit.

**UNIT 5 BLOCKING OSCILLATORS AND TIMEBASE GENERATORS**

UJT sawtooth waveform generator, Pulse transformers – equivalent circuit – response

applications, Blocking Oscillator – Free running blocking oscillator -Astable Blocking

Oscillators with base timing – Push-pull Astable blocking oscillator with emitter timing,

Frequency control using core saturation, Triggered blocking oscillator – Monostable blocking

oscillator with base timing – Monostable blocking oscillator with emitter timing, Time base

circuits -Voltage-Time base circuit, Current-Time base circuit -Linearization through

adjustment of driving waveform.

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. Millman and Halkias. C.,” Integrated Electronics”, TMH, 1991.

2. S. Salivahanan, N. Suresh Kumar and A. Vallavaraj, “Electronic Devices and Circuits”,

Second Edition, TMH, 2007.

**REFERENCES**

**1.**Millman J. and Taub H., “Pulse Digital and Switching Waveforms”, TMH, 2000.

2. Schilling and Belove, “ Electronic Circuits “, Third Edition, TMH, 2002.

3. Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nasheresky, “ Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory”,

nineth Edition, PHI, 2002.

4. David A. Bell,” Solid State Pulse Circuits”, Prentice Hall of India, 1992.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

**10144EC403 COMMUNICATION THEORY**

**AIM**

To study the various analog communication fundamentals viz., Amplitude modulation and

demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation. Noise performance of various receivers

and information theory with source coding theorem are also dealt.

**OBJECTIVE**

To provide various Amplitude modulation and demodulation systems.

To provide various Angle modulation and demodulation systems.

To provide some depth analysis in noise performance of various receiver.

To study some basic information theory with some channel coding theorem.

**UNIT1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEMS**

Review of Spectral Characteristics of Periodic and Non-periodic signals; Generation and

Demodulation of AM, DSBSC, SSB and VSB Signals; Comparison of Amplitude Modulation

Systems; Frequency Translation; FDM; Non – Linear Distortion-. Superheterodyne Radio

receiver and its characteristic; SNR

**UNIT 2. ANGLE MODULATION SYSTEMS**

Phase and Frequency Modulation; Single tone, Narrow Band and Wideband FM;

Transmission Bandwidth; Generation and Demodulation of FM Signal.

**UNIT 3. NOISE THEORY**

Gaussian Process; Noise – Shot noise, Thermal noise and white noise; Narrow band noise,

Noise temperature; Noise Figure.

**UNIT4. PERFORMANCE OF CW MODULATION SYSTEMS**

Noise in DSBSC systems using coherent detection; Noise in AM system using envelope

detection and its FM system; FM threshold effect; Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis in FM;

Comparison of performances.

**UNIT5. INFORMATION THEORY**

Discrete Messages and Information Content, Concept of Amount of Information, Average

information, Entropy, Information rate, Source coding to increase average information per bit,

Shannon-Fano coding, Huffman coding, Lempel-Ziv (LZ) coding, Shannon’s Theorem,

Channel Capacity, Bandwidth- S/N trade-off, Mutual information and channel capacity, rate

distortion theory, Lossy Source coding.

**TEXT BOOKS**

1.Simon Haykin, “ Communication Systems”, John Wiley and sons, NY, 4th Edition, 2001.

2. Dennis Roddy & John Coolen – “Electronic Communication (IV Ed.)”, Prentice Hall of

India.

**REFERENCE:**

1. Herbert Taub & Donald L Schilling –“ Principles of Communication Systems” Third

Edition – Tata McGraw Hill, 2008.

2. Bruce Carlson – “Communication Systems”. (Third Edition.), Mc Graw Hill.

3. B.P.Lathi, “ Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems”, Third Edition, Oxfod

Press,2007.

4. R.P Singh and S.D.Sapre, “Communication Systems – Analog and Digital”, Tata McGraw

Hill, second Edition, 2007.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

**10144EC404 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS**

**AIM**

To familiarize the student to the concepts, calculations and pertaining to electric, magnetic and

electromagnetic fields so that an in depth understanding of antennas, electronic devices,

Waveguides is possible.

**OBJECTIVES**

To analyze fields and potentials due to static changes

To evaluate static magnetic fields

To understand how materials affect electric and magnetic fields

To understand the relation between the fields under time varying situations

To understand principles of propagation of uniform plane waves.

**UNIT I STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS**

Introduction to Co-ordinate System – Rectangular – Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate

System – Introduction to line, Surface and Volume Integrals – Definition of Curl, Divergence

and Gradient – Meaning of Stokes theorem and Divergence theorem Coulomb’s Law in

Vector Form – Definition of Electric Field Intensity – Principle of Superposition – Electric

Field due to discrete charges – Electric field due to continuous charge distribution - Electric

Field due to charges distributed uniformly on an infinite and finite line – Electric Field on the

axis of a uniformly charged circular disc – Electric Field due to an infinite uniformly charged

sheet. Electric Scalar Potential – Relationship between potential and electric field - Potential

due to infinite uniformly charged line – Potential due to electrical dipole - Electric Flux

Density – Gauss Law – Proof of Gauss Law – Applications.

**UNIT 2 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD**

The Biot-Savart Law in vector form – Magnetic Field intensity due to a finite and infinite wire

carrying a current I – Magnetic field intensity on the axis of a circular and rectangular loop

carrying a current I – Ampere’s circuital law and simple applications. Magnetic flux density –

The Lorentz force equation for a moving charge and applications – Force on a wire carrying a

current I placed in a magnetic field – Torque on a loop carrying a current I – Magnetic

moment – Magnetic Vector Potential.

**UNIT 3 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN MATERIALS**

Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation – Electric Polarization-Nature of dielectric materials-

Definition of Capacitance – Capacitance of various geometries using Laplace’s equation –

Electrostatic energy and energy density – Boundary conditions for electric fields – Electric

current – Current density – point form of ohm’s law – continuity equation for current.

Definition of Inductance – Inductance of loops and solenoids – Definition of mutual

inductance – simple examples. Energy density in magnetic fields – Nature of magnetic

materials – magnetization and permeability - magnetic boundary conditions.

**UNIT 4 TIME VARYING ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS**

Faraday’s law – Maxwell’s Second Equation in integral form from Faraday’s Law – Equation

expressed in point form. Displacement current – Ampere’s circuital law in integral form –

Modified form of Ampere’s circuital law as Maxwell’s first equation in integral form –

Equation expressed in point form. Maxwell’s four equations in integral form and differential

form. Poynting Vector and the flow of power – Power flow in a co-axial cable – Instantaneous

Average and Complex Poynting Vector.

**UNIT 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES**

Derivation of Wave Equation – Uniform Plane Waves – Maxwell’s equation in Phasor form –

Wave equation in Phasor form – Plane waves in free space and in a homogenous material.

Wave equation for a conducting medium – Plane waves in lossy dielectrics – Propagation in

good conductors – Skin effect. Linear, Elliptical and circular polarization – Reflection of

Plane Wave from a conductor – normal incidence – Reflection of Plane Waves by a perfect

dielectric – normal and oblique incidence. Dependence on Polarization. Brewster angle.

**TEXTBOOKS**

1.W H.Hayt & J A Buck “Engineering Electromagnetics” TATA McGraw-Hill, seventh

Edition 2007 (Unit I,II,III ).

2.E.C.Jordan & K.G. Balmain, “Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems.” PHI 2006.

(Unit IV, V).

**REFERENCES**

1.Matthew N.O.Sadiku: “Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics” Oxford University

Press, fourth edition, 2007

2.Narayana Rao, N “Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics” sixth edition, Pearson

Education, New Delhi, 2006.

3.David K.Cheng: “Field and Wave Electromagnetics” Second Edition-Pearson Edition, 2004.

4.G.S.N. Raju, “ Electromagnetic Field Theory & Transmission Lines”, Pearson Education,

2006

**10144EC405 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS**

**AIM:**

To teach the basic concepts in the design of electronic circuits using linear integrated circuits

and their applications in the processing of analog signals.

**OBJECTIVES**

To introduce the basic building blocks of linear integrated circuits.

To teach the linear and non-linear applications of operational amplifiers.

To introduce the theory and applications of analog multipliers and PLL.

To teach the theory of ADC and DAC

To introduce the concepts of waveform generation and introduce some special function ICs.

**UNIT - I IC FABRICATION AND CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR LINEAR ICS**

Advantages of Ics over discrete components – Manufacturing process of monolithic Ics –

Construction of monolithic bipolar transistor – Monolithic diodes – Integrated Resistors –

Monolithic Capacitors – Inductors. Current mirror and current sources, Current sources as

active loads, Voltage sources, Voltage References, BJT Differential amplifier with active

loads, General operational amplifier stages -and internal circuit diagrams of IC 741, DC and

AC performance characteristics, slew rate, Open and closed loop configurations.

**UNIT - 2 APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS**

Sign Changer, Scale Changer, Phase Shift Circuits, Voltage Follower, V-to-I and I-to-V

converters, adder, subtractor, Instrumentation amplifier, Integrator, Differentiator,

Logarithmic amplifier, Antilogarithmic amplifier, Comparators, Schmitt trigger, Precision

rectifier, peak detector, clipper and clamper, Low-pass, high-pass and band-pass Butterworth

filters.

**UNIT - 3 ANALOG MULTIPLIER AND PLL**

Analog Multiplier using Emitter Coupled Transistor Pair - Gilbert Multiplier cell - Variable

transconductance technique, analog multiplier ICs and their applications, Operation of the

basic PLL, Closed loop analysis, Voltage controlled oscillator, Monolithic PLL IC 565,

application of PLL for AM detection, FM detection, FSK modulation and demodulation and

Frequency synthesizing.

**UNIT - 4 ANALOG TO DIGITAL AND DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTERS**

Analog and Digital Data Conversions, D/A converter – specifications - weighted resistor type,

R-2R Ladder type, Voltage Mode and Current-Mode R . 2R Ladder types - switches for D/A

converters, high speed sample-and-hold circuits, A/D Converters – specifications - Flash type

- Successive Approximation type - Single Slope type - Dual Slope type - A/D Converter using

Voltage-to-Time Conversion - Over-sampling A/D Converters.

**UNIT - 5 WAVEFORM GENERATORS AND SPECIAL FUNCTION ICs**

Sine-wave generators, Multi vibrators and Triangular wave generator, Saw-tooth wave

generator, ICL8038 function generator, Timer IC 555, IC Voltage regulators -Three terminal

fixed and adjustable voltage regulators -IC 723 general purpose regulator monolithic

switching regulator, Switched capacitor filter IC MF10, Frequency to Voltage and Voltage to

Frequency converters, Audio Power amplifier, Video Amplifier, Isolation Amplifier, Optocouplers

and fibre optic IC.

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1.D.Roy Choudhry, Shail Jain,”Linear Integrated Circuits”,New Age International Pvt. Ltd.,

2000.

**REFERENCES:**

1.B.S.Sonde, “ System design using Integrated Circuits”, New Age Pub, 2nd Edition, 2001

2.Gray and Meyer, “ Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits”, Wiley International,

2005.

3.Ramakant A.Gayakwad,”OP-AMP and Linear ICs” , Prentice Hall / Pearson Education,

fourth Edition, 2001.

4.William D.Stanley,”Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits”, Pearson

Education, 2004.

5.K Lal Kishore, “Operational Amplifier and Linear Integrated Circuits”, Pearson Education,

2006

**10144EC406 CONTROL SYSTEMS**

**AIM**

To familiarize the students with concepts related to the operation analysis and stabilization of

control systems

**OBJECTIVES**

To understand the open loop and closed loop (feedback ) systems

To understand time domain and frequency domain analysis of control systems

required for stability analysis.

To understand the compensation technique that can be used to stabilize control systems

**UNIT 1. CONTROL SYSTEM MODELING**

Basic Elements of Control System – Open loop and Closed loop systems - Differential

equation - Transfer function, Modeling of Electric systems, Translational and rotational

mechanical systems - Block diagram reduction Techniques - Signal flow graph

**UNIT 2 RESPONSE ANALYSIS**

Time response analysis - First Order Systems - Impulse and Step Response analysis of second

order systems - Steady state errors – P, PI, PD and PID Compensation, Analysis using

MATLAB

**UNIT 3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS**

Frequency Response - Bode Plot, Polar Plot, Nyquist Plot - Frequency Domain specifications

from the plots - Constant M and N Circles - Nichol’s Chart - Use of Nichol’s Chart in Control

System Analysis. Series, Parallel, series-parallel Compensators - Lead, Lag, and Lead Lag

Compensators, Analysis using MATLAB.

**UNIT 4. STABILITY ANALYSIS**

Stability, Routh-Hurwitz Criterion, Root Locus Technique, Construction of Root Locus,

Stability, Dominant Poles, Application of Root Locus Diagram - Nyquist Stability Criterion -

Relative Stability, Analysis using MATLAB

**UNIT 5. STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS & DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS**

State space representation of Continuous Time systems – State equations – Transfer function

from State Variable Representation – Solutions of the state equations - Concepts of

Controllability and Observability – State space representation for Discrete time systems.

Sampled Data control systems – Sampling Theorem – Sample & Hold – Open loop & Closed

loop sampled data systems.

**TEXTBOOK:**

1.J.Nagrath and M.Gopal,” Control System Engineering”, New Age International Publishers,

5th Edition, 2007.

2. A.Anand Kumar ,”Control systems “, PHI Learning Private Limited ,2010

**REFERENCES:**

1.Benjamin.C.Kuo, “Automatic control systems”, Prentice Hall of India, Edition,1995.

2.M.Gopal, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Second Edition, TMH, 2007.

3.Schaum’s Outline Series,’ Feedback and Control Systems’ Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.

5.Richard C. Dorf & Robert H. Bishop, “ Modern Control Systems”, Addison – Wesley, 1999.

**10144EC407 ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS II AND SIMULATION LAB**

**Design of following circuits**

1. Series and Shunt feedback amplifiers: Frequency response, Input and output impedance

calculation

2. RC Phase shift oscillator, Wien Bridge Oscillator

3. Hartley Oscillator, Colpitts Oscillator

4. Tuned Class C Amplifier

5. Integrators, Differentiators, Clippers and Clampers

6. Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators

SIMULATION USING PSPICE:

1. Differential amplifier

2. Active filters : Butterworth 2nd order LPF, HPF (Magnitude & Phase Response)

3. Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrator -Transistor bias

4. D/A and A/D converters (Successive approximation)

5. Analog multiplier

6. CMOS Inverter, NAND and NOR

**10144EC408 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB**

Design and testing of

1. Inverting, Non inverting and Differential amplifiers.

2. Integrator and Differentiator.

3. Instrumentation amplifier

4. Active lowpass, Highpass and bandpass filters.

5. Astable & Monostable multivibrators and Schmitt Trigger using op-amp.

6. Phase shift and Wien bridge oscillators using op-amp.

7. Astable and monostable multivibrators using NE555 Timer.

8. PLL characteristics and its use as Frequency Multiplier.

9. DC power supply using LM317 and LM723.

10. Study of SMPS.

11. Simulation of Experiments 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 using PSpice netlists.

Note: Op-Amps uA741, LM 301, LM311, LM 324 & AD 633 may be used

**10144EC409 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND CONTROL SYSTEM LAB**

**AIM**

1. To expose the students to the basic operation of electrical machines and help them to

develop experimental skills.

2. To study the concepts, performance characteristics, time and frequency

response of linear systems.

3. To study the effects of controllers.

1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited D.C. generator.

2. Load test on D.C. shunt motor.

3. Swinburne’s test and speed control of D.C. shunt motor.

4. Load test on single phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit test on single phase

transformer

5. Regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods.

6. Load test on three phase induction motor.

7. No load and blocked rotor tests on three phase induction motor (Determination of

equivalent circuit parameters)

8. Study of D.C. motor and induction motor starters.

9. Digital simulation of linear systems.

10. Stability Analysis of Linear system using Mat lab.

11. Study the effect of P, PI, PID controllers using Mat lab.

12. Design of Lead and Lag compensator.

13. Transfer Function of separately excited D.C.Generator.

14. Transfer Function of armature and Field Controller D.C.Motor.

**EXPERIMENTS:**

**1. Open circuit and load characteristics of separately excited and self excited D.C.**

**generator.**

**2. Load test on D.C. shunt motor.**

**3. Swinburne’s test and speed control of D.C. shunt motor**

**4. Load test on single-phase transformer and open circuit and short circuit**

**test on single-phase transformer.**

**5. Regulation of three-phase alternator by EMF and MMF method.**

**6. Load test on three phase Induction motor.**

**7. No load and blocked rotor test on three-phase induction motor**

(

**Determination of equivalent circuit parameters)****8. Study of D.C. motor and Induction motor starters.**

**9. Digital simulation of linear systems.**

**10. Stability analysis of linear system using Mat lab or equivalent open source tools**

**11. Study of effect of P, PI, PID controllers using Mat lab. or equivalent open source**

**tools**

**12. Design of lead and lag compensator**.

**13. Transfer function of separately excited D.C. generator.**

**14. Transfer function of armature and field controller D.C. motor**.

## No comments:

## Post a Comment

Hello Friends...! Lets share Your Views,Ideas,Comments here....!!